Hallux valgus is a common orthopaedic problem characterized by the deviation of the position of the big toe inside. At the same time, this pathology may not only affect the big toe on the foot, but also the very foot, ankle, leg and even hip. The main characteristic of this pathology – "X"-shaped deformation, therefore, to tread it with other orthopedic problems impossible. Typically, this disorder occurs in children, but adults are also diagnosed. It can be due to trauma, endocrine abnormalities, osteoarthritis or osteoporosis.
The disease is caused by a deformity of the metatarsal joints, which leads to disruption in the forefoot, increasing the range of motion of tendons and ligaments. The result of the foot as to be displaced inward. Is most often diagnosed in adults hallux valgus big toe, and the children – flat feet.
As mentioned above, most often the disorder occurs in children, so the main reasons are genetic. The child is born with this disease, or may acquire it in a very small age due to delays in raising the legs, or prolonged standing (e.g. arena), or due to the excessive efforts of parents to make their kid faster I went.
Reasons for emergence of this disease in children can be the following:
The causes of deformity in adults is:
People a deformity called "bone" because in place of the curvature of the thumb is formed of bone growth, which causes a lot of inconvenience, because it is difficult to find the right shoes. Without treatment, this build-up grows in size and becomes inflamed, causing a person experiences severe pain while walking.
Often, parents of children faced with placing their kids with such a diagnosis as flat feet. In people, this pathology is called flat feet, and it is characterized by the tilt of the foot in hand with the formation of a worn down topography. Genetic predisposition to flat feet in children plays a major role. However, the reasons for this violation also lie in the wearing of uncomfortable shoes and ill-timed raising of the child on the legs.
Note that according to ICD-10 each deformation has its codes. So, the flat has a code M21.4, and the classic PLANO-valgus deformation of foot in children – M21.0. In addition, pathology with genetically determined factors of development (congenital), identified by the code Q66.5.
The symptoms of this disease will depend on which joints are affected. With flat feet will be a violation of gait, pain with prolonged standing or walking, the curvature of foot position shift inside.
In cases when children or adults are detected by the so-called "bone", the symptoms will be the following:
In addition, the symptoms may be local redness at the site of deformity, swelling "bones", increased at the site of lesion of skin temperature (the place feels "hot"), the development of calluses and corns.
The treatment of this disease is mainly surgical, conservative treatment can only reduce symptoms of disease and to slow the progression of the deformation process in the initial stages of the process.
At the same time, treatment of flat feet, on the contrary, predominantly conservative. And it is effective in most cases, especially in children. Therefore, with any of the orthopedic disorders described above should immediately consult the podiatrist, who will make the diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment that will give the opportunity to avoid complications and major surgical procedures.
The diagnosis of this pathology as hallux valgus in a child are established on the basis of visual inspection and radiographic studies. When the patient is diagnosed with this disorder like flat feet, the diagnosis is established only on the basis of complaints and visual inspection, as severe radiological changes, especially in the early stages of the disease, is not observed.
Usually the symptoms of flat feet in children appear in the moment when toddlers begin to walk. Due to the flattening of the foot the child is unable to stand on his feet, but his shoes wear unevenly. Reference to the doctor allows the disease effectively treated using physiotherapy techniques. Physiotherapy treatment involves conduct little patient the massage, which helps to improve blood circulation in the foot and to soften muscle tissue and ligaments, thereby restoring the foot's normal terrain.
The treatment involves wearing special orthopedic shoes or using orthopedic insoles, it is best if they are custom. Treatment for flatfoot is performed using a set of special exercises, such as walking on toes, "skating" foot cylindrical objects, etc.
If we talk about the treatment of the notorious "bone", it is only surgical, especially if begun late. In modern medical practice there are several varieties of surgeries to get rid of this problem, until the removal of the growth with a laser and hip replacement, but the truth is that in 10% of cases people have deformation occurs.
In the initial stages conservative treatment of hallux valgus the big toe allows you to achieve a good effect. The most effective method is massage, which is performed by a specialist in a medical institution or the patient's home. Massage allows you to develop fixed sites, to increase blood flow and reduce inflammation in the joint. At the same time, massage is contraindicated in cases when the area of deformation occurred inflammation of the joint – bursitis. Massage courses is 15-20 sessions and is held at least 4 times a year before full recovery. The massage includes treatment of the muscles of the feet and lower leg internal group and also massage the plantar muscles.
If we talk about surgery – the operation by laser is the most gentle. There are data regarding the treatment of this disease using the overlay special restraint of the tire. It can either be worn during sleep or wear all day (depending on model) for a long time. But, again, such treatment is only effective in the early stages of the disease.
As mentioned above, among all surgical methods, laser treatment gives the best results, and therefore, every year becoming more and more popular, despite the relatively high cost of the procedure. Laser treatment has a minimum of contraindications, so it is suitable to all people (both adults and children with this deformity). In addition, the laser treatment has a minimal rehabilitation period to recover people after only a few weeks after the procedure, while normal operation requires several months of rehabilitation.