Flat — (pes planus; synonym flat foot) changing the shape of the foot, characterized by the drooping of its longitudinal and transverse arches.
The inborn flat-valgus deformity of foot is one of the most severe congenital deformities of the feet in children and accounts for about 18% of all foot deformities. According to many authors, the incidence of this pathology in recent years is increasing.
At the same time in the diagnosis and treatment of inborn flat-valgus deformity of feet in children, especially younger children, least pronounced when secondary changes, and the treatment is most effective, there are many differences.
It is generally assumed that children before 3-4 years of age, and according to some authors — to 8-year-old, a physiological flat feet, due to filling of the longitudinal arch tissue. This leads to the fact that practitioners think it is possible to diagnose and begin treatment of inborn flat-valgus deformity stop only after the specified age. This in turn leads to the fact that treatment starts too late and does not give a satisfactory effect.
The reason for flat feet are congenital malformations of the structural elements of the foot in utero. Treatment of this strain of conservative. From the first days of life leave a landmark casts, carry out the correction of deformity of limbs, prescribed physio-therapy, medical gymnastics, massage and the wearing of orthopedic shoes.
There is also the concept of flat valgus feet - a violation of the arch, in which the baby's heel deflected outward. This is the most common type of flatfoot, which is a symptom of uneven wipe the soles of their shoes. The child can't run or walk, complains of pain in the legs. Night-time cramping of the calf muscles.
The main causes of flat feet in children are:
If you have changed the gait of a child, he began to move less, to rest more after walking, running, complaining of fatigue and pain in the legs, you need a child to consult an experienced physician podiatrist.
If the baby showed signs is a reason to visit a podiatrist.
But sometimes the deformity is slowly and gradually for many years without showing themselves virtually any special complaints. But gradually, the symptoms are growing, and will deteriorate as the power and ability of the body to compensate at an early age is limited.
There is a quick and accurate diagnosis, and allows to examine children from the moment of verticalization.
The technique lies in obtaining a print of the outline of the foot on paper, in static load. The analysis of the geometry of the foot prints allows you to assess the positional setting of the stop with detection of abnormalities and relationship to the posterior, lateral and inner surface of the feet and musculoskeletal system as a whole.
Treatment of static flatfoot in children, aimed at strengthening of muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the foot, includes massage, physiotherapy and exercise therapy.
The younger children are excluded soft shoes (boots, rubber boots, gym shoes); wearing shoes with hard soles and a small heel, good fixing ankle joints.
When flat feet in older children are shown wearing orthopedic shoes with a special insole that lifts the arch is omitted and return the foot to the correct position.
Elimination flatfoot in children contributes hydromassage, contrast foot baths, paraffin, ozokerite and mud applications on the area of the foot, magnetic therapy. In the absence of the effect of the correction applied plaster bandage and splint; in severe cases, the combined flatfoot possible surgery on the bones and soft tissues of the foot and lower leg.
The optimal age for surgical treatment of flatfoot in children 8-12 years.